His rivals included Cardinal Ardicio della Porta and Cardinal Ascanio Sforza, both patronized by the Milanese. Indeed, on the day of his election, he declared:.mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}, I will not live in the same rooms as the Borgias lived. His remains lay alongside his uncle, Pope Sixtus IV, but were later desecrated during the Sack of Rome in 1527. [10] In his Julius Excluded from Heaven, the scholar Erasmus of Rotterdam described a Pope Julius II in the afterlife planning to storm Heaven when he is denied entry. Like voting is closed. He often treated subordinates and people who worked for him very badly. [80], The Bull entitled Ea quae pro bono pacis, issued on 24 January 1506, confirmed papal approval of the mare clausum policy being pursued by Spain and Portugal amid their explorations, and approved the changes of the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas to previous papal bulls. He had four siblings: Bartolomeo, later Bishop of Ferrara; Leonardo; Giovanni, later Prefect of the City of Rome and Prince of Sorea and Senigallia; and Lucina, mother of Cardinal Sisto Gara della Rovere. [44], In the Conclave of 1492, following the death of Innocent VIII, Cardinal della Rovere was supported for election by both King Charles VIII of France and by Charles' enemy King Ferrante of Naples. They are listed in chronological order within each section. 249-251. On 22 August 1476 he founded the Collegium de Ruvere in Avignon. [102] Julius' reply was the issuing of the bull Non-sini gravi of 18 July 1511, which fixed the date of 19 April 1512 for the opening of his own council. However, Julius II was far away from the possibility to form a single Italian kingdom, if that was his goal at all, since foreign armies were largely involved in his wars and the French were preparing new campaigns against the Swiss for Milan. [110] From then until 6 January he was confined to bed, and most of the time with a fever; he had lost his appetite, but the doctors were unable to diagnose his languor. Category:Popes by nationality. [3], In his early years as Pope, Julius II removed the Borjas from power and exiled them to Spain. Julius II (1443-1513), who was pope from 1503 to 1513, was a noted Renaissance patron of the arts. The same year he organized the renowned Swiss Guards for his personal protection and commanded a successful campaign in Romagna against local lords. Yet Machiavelli and his methods would not outlast Julius' Papacy. [109] On Christmas Eve, Julius ordered Paris to summon the College of Cardinals and the Sacristan of the Apostolic Palace, quia erat sic infirmus, quod non-speraret posse diu supravivere. Gender: Male Religion: Roman Catholic Race or Ethnicity: White Occupation: Religion. Other more pressing problems distracted the attention of Nicholas and subsequent popes, but Julius was not the sort of person to be distracted once he had settled on an idea, in this case, for the greatest building on earth, for the glory of Saint Peter and himself. In June Federico of Altamura was back in Rome and held conversations with Della Rovere, assuring him of Neapolitan protection. The Top 25 Wrestling Announcers Of All Time, Famous Role Models You Would Like To Meet, 16th Century Spiritual & Religious Leaders. A French entourage arrived in Rome on 31 May, but immediately relations broke down with the pro-Spanish Cardinal Rodrigo. In his early years as Pope, Julius II removed the Borjas from power and exiled them to Spain. 46, no. A warrior pope, he failed to bring Italy under papal control. [40] On Palm Sunday, 20 March, Cardinal della Rovere, concealing his activities from his principal rival, Cardinal Rodrigo Borgia (later Pope Alexander VI), rode out of Rome and took ship at Ostia, intending to head for Genoa and Avignon to prepare to wage war between the Church and the King of Naples, Ferdinand I (Ferrante). To many Julius II has been described as the best in an era of exceptionally bad popes: Alexander VI was evil and despotic, exposing the future Julius II to a number of assassination attempts that required tremendous fortitude. He was well aware that the Church was corrupt and sought to dramatically reform it. Julius shaved his beard again before his death, and his immediate successors were clean-shaven; nonetheless Pope Clement VII sported a beard when mourning the sack of Rome. [74] The Borgia Apartments were turned to other uses. Julius III, born Giovanni Maria del Monte, Roman Catholic Pope from 1550 to 1555, was born on the 10th of September 1487. 10-11 (with a defective chronology). [55], In March 1497 Pope Alexander deprived Cardinal della Rovere of his benefices as an enemy of the Apostolic See, and Giovanni della Rovere of the Prefecture of Rome. He suffered from severe fever, the causes of which could not be diagnosed, and died on February 21, 1513, following which Paris de Grassis conducted his funeral that evening. In overturning the ban on beards Pope Julius challenged Gregorian conventional wisdom in dangerous times. [72] In the end, as in all papal elections, the vote is made unanimous after the leading candidate has achieved the required number of votes for election. But Ferrante's army decided the pope's humiliation, Innocent backed down and on 10 August signed a treaty. He seemed less enthused by theology; rather, Paul Strathern argues, his imagined heroes were military leaders such as Frederic Colonna. The rulers of Europe paid little attention, but to show his sincerity Alexander imposed a tithe on all the residents of the Papal States and a tithe on the clergy of the entire world. Ferrante, therefore, decided to use Della Rovere as the center of an anti-Sforza party at the papal court, a prospect made easier since Ferrante had prudently repaired his relations with Cardinal Giuliano after the War of the Barons. Dumesnil, pp. Gregorovius, VII.1, pp. He was the nephew of Pope Sixtus IV. Cesare Borgia, Duke of Romagna, shared the same fate and lost his possessions. However, the Papal States remained independent and centralized as a result of Julius' policies and the office of the papacy would remain crucial, diplomatically and politically, during the entirety of the 16th century in Italy and Europe. The kidnapping party returned to Rome on 12 July, without having accomplished its mission. [93] The achievements of the League soon outstripped the primary intention of Julius. Giovanni Berthelet. Louis XII defeated the alliance at Battle of Ravenna on 11 April 1512. [12] He had three brothers: Bartolomeo, a Franciscan friar who then became Bishop of Ferrara (1474–1494);[13] Leonardo; and Giovanni, Prefect of the City of Rome (1475–1501)[14] and Prince of Sorea and Senigallia. https://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/pope-julius-ii-8285.php, The Hottest Male Celebrities With The Best Abs. Louis XII of France controlled the Duchy of Milan, previously held by the Sforzas, and French influence had replaced that of the Medici in the Republic of Florence. On the morning of 24 June Paris found the Pope debilem et semifebricantem. However, he never neglected his duties as the spiritual head of the Church, and heard mass almost daily and often celebrated it himself. He resented the increasing influence of Ferdinand of Aragon in Italy under Alexander VI and opposed his nepotism, and to escape Alexander's wrath, he fled to France to the court of Charles VIII in 1494. He returned to Rome on 4 October 1476. Gregorovius, VII.2, pp. p. 74. He also joined an anti-Venetian league formed in Cambrai between France, Spain, and Austria, with the goal of capturing the coast of Romagna from the Venetian Republic. He was generally absorbed in deep and silent thought."[120]. [49], Della Rovere at once determined to take refuge from Borgia's wrath at Ostia. [28] He returned to Rome on 3 February 1482. He proved to be an able administrator and helped to reform the government of the Papal States. The conciliarist movement promoted by foreign monarchs was crushed, and Julius II affirmed ultramontanism at the Fifth Lateran Council. [4] He was summoned by King Charles VIII to Lyons, where the two met on 1 June 1494. 445-446. On 4 February he had an extensive conversation with Paris concerning the arrangements for his funeral. The fifth session was held on 16 February, but Pope Julius was too ill to attend. He was of the House of della Rovere, a noble but impoverished family, the son of Raffaelo della Rovere[a][11] and Theodora Manerola, a lady of Greek ancestry. [63] Meanwhile, the French army crossed the Alps and captured Alessandria in Piedmont. However, he also began the demolition of the old St. Peter's Basilica, which had stood for more than 1,100 years. [105] In the third plenary session, on 3 December 1512, Julius attended, though he was ill; but he wanted to witness and receive the formal adhesion of Emperor Maximilian to the Lateran Council and his repudiation of the Conciliabulum Pisanum. Strozzi transcript of Diaria et ceremoniale pape Julii II, 1504-1513, 17th or 18th century. Pope Leo X juxtaposed the character of his predecessor, the warrior pope, Julius II. Indulgences (which remit the temporal effects of sins that have already been forgiven) involve the person receiving the indulgence doing some sort of good work, like donating to a charitable cause. 747-752. Pastor, VI, pp. Cardinal Raffaele Riario, the Dean of the College of Cardinals and Bishop of Ostia, presided. [127] Erasmus also impropriated sexual misconduct in his 1514 dialogues "Julius Excluded from Heaven"; a theme picked up in the denunciation made at the conciliabulum of Pisa. Julius II personally led the Papal armed forces at the victorious Siege of Mirandola and, despite subsequent defeats and great losses at the Battle of Ravenna, he ultimately forced the French troops of Louis XII to retreat behind the Alps after the arrival of Swiss mercenaries from the Holy Roman Empire. Pope Julius II was the 216th leader of the Catholic Church and the second among those great men to guide by the papal name of “Julius.” This article seeks to distinguish him from his many papal forebears and successors by focusing on specifics and details of his life and papacy. A second design was submitted by Giuliano da Sangallo, an old friend of Julius, who had worked on several projects for him before, including the palazzo at S. Pietro in Vincoli, and who had left Rome with Julius when he fled the wrath of Alexander VI in 1495. The frescoes on the ceiling of Stanza d'Eliodoro in the stanze of Raphael depict the traumatic events in 1510–11 when the Papacy regained its freedom. Pope Julius II was born as Giuliano della Rovere Albisola on December 5, 1443, in the Albisola near Savona in the Republic of Genoa to Raffaelo della Rovere and Theodora Manerola. [30], On 31 January 1483 Cardinal della Rovere was promoted suburbicarian Bishop of Ostia, in succession to Cardinal Guillaume d'Estouteville who had died on 22 January. Pastor, VI, p. 431. However, he was not laid there, and the 'Tomb of Julius II', finished long after his death, was instead placed in the church of San Pietro in Vincoli, where the pope first became a cardinal. [95], Attempts to cause a rupture between France and England proved unsuccessful; on the other hand, at a synod convened by Louis at Tours in September 1510, the French bishops withdrew from papal obedience and resolved, with the Emperor's co-operation, to seek dethronement of the pope. The Earlier Tudors, 1485-1558. Pastor, V, p. 491. He usurped the papal power by the devil's aid, and I forbid under the pain of excommunication anyone to speak or think of Borgia again. In 1506, he personally led an army to Perugia and Bologna to free the two papal cities from despots Giampolo Baglioni and Giovanni II Bentivoglio. He issued a strict bull against simony at papal elections; condemned the heresy of Piero de Lucca; instituted Capella Julia, a school for ecclesiastical chant; and convoked the Fifth Lateran Council to eradicate abuses from the church. In the same year, the Pope founded the Swiss Guard to provide a constant corps of soldiers to protect the pope. "[82][page needed] Julius, who modeled himself after his namesake Caesar, would personally lead his army across the Italian peninsula under the imperial war-cry, "Drive out the barbarians." Julius II is one of Father Kunst’s favorite popes alongside Saint John Paul II and Pope John Paul I. In 1476 the office of Legate was added, and he left Rome for France in February. Julius, unlike his predecessors and many of his successors, was committed to reforming the Church. Pope Julius II was born as Giuliano della Rovere Albisola on December 5, 1443, in the Albisola near Savona in the Republic of Genoa to Raffaelo della Rovere and Theodora Manerola. [96] He refused to shave, showing utter contempt for the hated French occupation. Nevertheless, although Julius had centralized and expanded the Papal States, he was far from realizing his dream of an independent Italian kingdom. Pope Julius II bull, 1504. Julius II, who had sworn to summon a general council, maintained that it was delayed by foreign occupation of Italy, and after a false council 'Conciliabulum Pisanum' was formed, he convoked the Fifth Lateran Council in 1512. Pope Julius II (Italian: Papa Giulio II; Latin: Iulius II; born Giuliano della Rovere; 5 December 1443 – 21 February 1513) was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 1503 to his death in 1513. Although Raphael's original was lost, it was thought to relate closely to the personal iconography of Stanza della Segnatura, commissioned by Pope Julius himself. 492-493. [118] His proposals for S. Peter's, however, were not accepted despite what he believed to be a promise, and he retired in anger to Florence.[119]. Pope Julius II is remembered more for his patronage of the arts — including commissioning Michelangelo to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel — than for his theological impact on the Catholic church. On 18 April 1506 Pope Julius II laid the foundation stone of the new St. Peter's Basilica for the successful architect, Donato Bramante. Pope Julius II. [36], By 1484 Giuliano was living in the new palazzo which he had constructed next to the Basilica of the Twelve Apostles, which he had also restored. Pope Sixtus IV paid a formal visit to the newly restored building on 1 May 1482, and it may be that Giuliano was already in residence then. Julius II was succeeded by Pope Leo X. Pope was born on December 5, 1443 in Vatican..Pope is one of the famous and trending celeb who is popular for being a Celebrity. Pope Julius II was known for sponsoring some of the greatest artwork of the Italian Renaissance, including the … Julius II, original name Giuliano della Rovere, (born Dec. 5, 1443, Albisola, Republic of Genoa—died Feb. 21, 1513, Rome), greatest art patron of the papal line (reigned 1503–13) and one of the most powerful rulers of his age. However, his influence over the pope had earned him several enemies and a rivalry with Cardinal Rodrigo Borgia, who was able to influence the majority of votes and was elected as Pope Alexander VI. "[130], Charles VIII and the French war over Naples, the brother of Francesco della Rovere, later, (also known as the "War of the League of Cambrai". [46], On 31 August 1492 the new Pope, Alexander VI, held a consistory in which he named six cardinal legates, one of whom was Giuliano della Rovere, who was appointed Legate in Avignon. [76], Julius used his influence to reconcile two powerful Roman families, the Orsini and Colonna. Today both men lie in St. Peter's Basilica on the floor in front of the monument to Pope Clement X. University of Pennsylvania Library: referencedIn: Grassi, Paride, d. 1528. [12] During the War of the Holy League, alliances kept changing: in 1510 Venice and France switched places, and by 1513, Venice had joined France. [103] The Council actually convened on 3 May, and Paris de Grassis reports that the crowd at the basilica was estimated at 50,000. Giuliano Della Rovere thenceforth took the name of his fourth-century predecessor, Julius I, and was pope for nine years, from 1503 to 1513. Pope Julius was reported to be seriously ill in a dispatch received in Venice on 10 February 1513. 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